Item: i85332 Authentic Coin of. Italy - Papal States - Pope Pius XVI 1831 Silver Scudo 37mm (26.34 grams) 0.917 Silver 0.7792 oz. ASW Reference: KM# 1315.1 Certification: NGC. AU DETAILS 2845342-011 GREGORIVS XVI PON MAX A III NIC.
LVMEN AD REVELATIONEM GENTIVM ROMA, Two people presenting baby Jesus at the temple. Pope Gregory XVI (Latin: Gregorius XVI ; born Bartolomeo Alberto Cappellari ; 18 September 1765 - 1 June 1846) was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 2 February 1831 to his death in 1846. He had adopted the name Mauro upon entering the religious order of the Camaldolese.
Strongly conservative and traditionalist, he opposed democratic and modernising reforms in the Papal States and throughout Europe, seeing them as fronts for revolutionary leftism. Against these trends Gregory XVI sought to strengthen the religious and political authority of the papacy (see ultramontanism).In the encyclical Mirari vos , he pronounced it false and absurd, or rather mad, that we must secure and guarantee to each one liberty of conscience. He encouraged missionary activity abroad and condemned the slave trade. However, his harsh repression, financial extravagance and neglectfulness left him deeply unpopular domestically. He is the most recent pope to take the pontifical name "Gregory", and the most recent non-bishop to become pope. On 2 February 1831, after a fifty-day conclave, Cappellari was unexpectedly chosen to succeed Pope Pius VIII (1829-30). His election was influenced by the fact that the cardinal considered the most papabile , Giacomo Giustiniani, was vetoed by King Ferdinand VII of Spain. There then arose a deadlock between the other two major candidates, Emmanuele De Gregorio and Bartolomeo Pacca. What finally drove them to make a decision was a message from the Duke of Parma notifying them that revolt was about to break out in the northern Papal States. To resolve the impasse, the cardinals turned to Cappellari, but it took eighty-three ballots for the canonically required two-thirds majority to be reached. At the time of election, Cardinal Cappellari was not yet a bishop: he is the most recent man to be elected pope prior to his episcopal consecration.
He was consecrated as bishop by Bartolomeo Pacca, Cardinal Bishop of Ostia and Velletri and dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, with Pietro Francesco Galleffi, Cardinal Bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina and sub-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, and Tommasso Arezzo, Cardinal Bishop of Sabina, acting as co-consecrators. The choice of Gregory XVI as his regnal name was influenced by the fact that he had been abbot of the Monastery of San Gregorio on the Coelian Hill for more than twenty years, and in honour of Gregory XV, the founder of the Congregation for the Propaganda (Propagation of the Faith). Gregorio was the same abbey from which Pope Gregory I had dispatched missionaries to England in 596. The revolution of 1830, which overthrew the House of Bourbon, had just inflicted a severe blow on the Catholic royalist party in France.Almost the first act of the new French government was to seize Ancona, thus throwing Italy, and particularly the Papal States, into a state of confusion and political upheaval. In the course of the struggle that ensued, it was more than once necessary to call in Austrian troops to fight the red-shirted republicans engaged in a guerrilla campaign. The conservative administration of the Papal States postponed their promised reforms after a series of bombings and assassination attempts. The replacement of Tommaso Bernetti by Luigi Lambruschini as Cardinal Secretary of State in 1836 did nothing to appease the situation. In the northern territories the leaders of the revolt were middle-class gentry opposed to the general inefficiency of the government. Italy , officially the Italian Republic Italian. , is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe.
Italy covers an area of 301,338 km. (116,347 sq mi) and has a largely temperate climatelo Stivale (the Boot). With 61 million inhabitants, it is the 4th most populous EU member state.Located in the heart of the e Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Switzerland, Austria, Slovenia, San Marino and Vatican City. Since ancient times, Greek, Etruscan, Celtic, and other cultures have thrived on the Italian Peninsula. Rome ultimately emerged as the dominant power, conquering much of the ancient worldcentreWestern civilisation. The Renaissance led to a flourishing of Italian culture, producing famous scholars, artists, and polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci , Galileo , Michelangelo and Machiavelli. Italian explorers such as Marco Polo , Christopher Columbus , Amerigo Vespucci , and Giovanni da Verrazzano discovered new routes to the Far Eastst and the New World , helping to usher in the European Age of Discovery. Nevertheless, Italy remained politically fragmented and fell prey to European powers such as France , Spain , and later Austria , subsequently entering a long period of decline that lasted until the mid-19th century. After various unsuccessful attempts, the second and the third wars for Italian independence resulted in the eventual unification of most of present-day Italy by 1866. From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, the new Kingdom of Italycolonial empire , becoming a great power. However, southern and rural areas of the country remained largely excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora.
Despite being one of the main victorsrs in World War II , Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil, leading the way to the rise of a Fascist dictatorship in 1922. The subsequent participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in military defeat, economic destruction and civil war. In the years that followed, Italy abolished the monarchy, reinstated democracy, and enjoyed a prolonged economic boom , thus becoming one of the world's most developed nations. Eurozone and the eighth largest economy in the world.
It has a very high level of human development and enjoys the highest life expectancy in the EU. Italy plays a prominent role in global military, cultural and diplomatic affairs and is also considered to be a major regional power in Europe.
Italy is a founding and leading member of the European Union and the member of numerous international institutions, including the UN , NATO , the OECD , the OSCE , the WTO , the G77 / G8 , G20 , the Union for the Mediterranean , the Council of Europe , Uniting for Consensus , and many more. As a reflection of its vast cultural wealth, Italy is home to 51 World Heritage Sites , the most in the world, and is one of the most visited countries.
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