Item: i91594 Authentic Coin of. Sardinia Victor Amadeus III: King - 20 February 1773 - 16 October 1796 1795 Billon 20 Soldi 25mm (5.40 grams) 0.290 Silver Reference: KM# 94, MIR# 990 Certification: PCGS. MS 62 264773.62/36788727 VICT·AMED · D · G· REX·SARD·, Victor facing right. DUX·SABAUD· PRINC·PED SOL·20·, Crowned arms above value. Victor Amadeus III (Vittorio Amadeo Maria; 26 June 1726 - 16 October 1796) was King of Sardinia from 1773 to his death.Although he was politically conservative, he carried out numerous administrative reforms until he declared war on Revolutionary France in 1792. He was the father of the last three mainline Kings of Sardinia. Born at the Royal Palace of Turin, he was a son of Charles Emmanuel III of Sardinia and his second wife Polyxena of Hesse-Rotenburg. He was styled the Duke of Savoy from birth until he succeeded to his father's throne. He was the eldest son of his parents and was the heir apparent from birth which was greeted with much celebration. His father had had a son with his first wife, Countess Palatine Anne Christine of Sulzbach who was also named Victor Amadeus, Duke of Aosta, but died in 1725. His education was entrusted to Gerdil Giacinto Sigismondo, with a particular emphasis on military training. Throughout his life he would have a great interest in the state military on which he lavished attention. As a young prince, he surrounded himself with intellectuals and ministers, many of whom would come to prominence in his reign. He was privately conservative and very religious person, who, as a young boy, stayed far from public life.
His father felt him to be unsuitable to hold power. Good-natured but naive, Savoy would be loved by his subjects for his generosity. They were married on 31 May 1750 at Oulx and later had twelve children.
He had a loving relationship with his wife who exerted little influence over her husband. The marriage had been arranged by Maria Antonietta's half brother, the ruling Ferdinand VI of Spain. The Spanish Infanta had been previously rejected by Louis, Dauphin of France. The union was used to strengthen relations between Madrid and Turin having fought on opposing sides in the War of the Austrian Succession.
The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle ended the war. When Victor Amadeus came to the throne in 1773 he started working on bureaucratic and military aspects of the reign.
He was suspicious of anything innovative. However, he did implement several public works as well as paying a great deal of attention to his administration and armed forces. He approved and set up two new important cultural state institutions on the advice of the bourgeoisie and aristocracy alike.
He started works of improvements in the port of Nice, and had dams in the Arce and the road of the Côte built. At the outbreak of the French Revolution, Victor Amadeus III allowed his two sons-in-law, the Counts of Artois, Provence and the Princesses Marie Adélaïde and Victoire to stay in his kingdom under his protection.
After four years of fighting, the French under Bonaparte had finally beaten the Piedmontese army in the Battle of Montenotte (12 April 1796), the Battle of Millesimo (13-14 April 1796) and the Battle of Mondovi (21 April 1796). On April 26 the French proclaimed the Republic of Alba on the occupied territories. Two days later, with the Armistice of Cherasco, the Republic was ceded back to Victor Amadeus. He was forced to sign the Treaty of Paris on May 15 abandoning the First Coalition against the French Republic.The terms of the treaty required him to cede the fortresses of Cuneo, Ceva, Alessandria and Tortona to France, and allow free passage of the latter's armies towards Italy. He was also compelled to cede Nice and Savoy. He died on 16 October, 1796 at the Castle of Moncalieri having suffered an attack of apoplexy.
Victor Amadeus died leaving an economically damaged kingdom and two key provinces - Savoy and Nice - devastated having suffered at the hands of French revolutionary forces. He was buried at the Basilica of Superga in Turin. In 1786 Victor Amadeus III moved many of his ancestors and kinsmen to the Basilica of Superga where he himself rests today. He established the Gold Medal of Military Valor 21 May 1793. Like his parents, he carried out improvements to the Palazzina di caccia of Stupinigi outside Turin.
Victor Amadeus III also encouraged the extension of the Orto Botanico dell'Università di Torino as well as the Società Agraria di Torino which he created in 1785. His first cousin the Landgrave of Hesse-Rotenburg was named after him. Italy , officially the Italian Republic Italian. , is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe.Italy covers an area of 301,338 km. (116,347 sq mi) and has a largely temperate climatelo Stivale (the Boot). With 61 million inhabitants, it is the 4th most populous EU member state. Located in the heart of the e Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Switzerland, Austria, Slovenia, San Marino and Vatican City. Since ancient times, Greek, Etruscan, Celtic, and other cultures have thrived on the Italian Peninsula. Rome ultimately emerged as the dominant power, conquering much of the ancient world and becoming the leading cultural, political, and religious centreWestern civilisation. The Renaissance led to a flourishing of Italian culture, producing famous scholars, artists, and polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo, Michelangelo and Machiavelli. Italian explorers such as Marco Polo, Christopher Columbus, Amerigo Vespucci, and Giovanni da Verrazzano discovered new routes to the Far Eastst and the New World, helping to usher in the European Age of Discovery. Nevertheless, Italy remained politically fragmented and fell prey to European powers such as France, Spain, and later Austria, subsequently entering a long period of decline that lasted until the mid-19th century. After various unsuccessful attempts, the second and the third wars for Italian independence resulted in the eventual unification of most of present-day Italy by 1866. From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, the new Kingdom of Italycolonial empire, becoming a great power. However, southern and rural areas of the country remained largely excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora.
Despite being one of the main victorsrs in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil, leading the way to the rise of a Fascist dictatorship in 1922. The subsequent participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in military defeat, economic destruction and civil war. In the years that followed, Italy abolished the monarchy, reinstated democracy, and enjoyed a prolonged economic boom, thus becoming one of the world's most developed nations.Italy has the third largest economy in the Eurozone and the eighth largest economy in the world. It has a very high level of human development and enjoys the highest life expectancy in the EU. Italy plays a prominent role in global military, cultural and diplomatic affairs and is also considered to be a major regional power in Europe. Italy is a founding and leading member of the European Union and the member of numerous international institutions, including the UN, NATO, the OECD, the OSCE, the WTO, the G7/G8, G20, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Council of Europe, Uniting for Consensus, and many more. As a reflection of its vast cultural wealth, Italy is home to 51 World Heritage Sites, the most in the world, and is one of the most visited countries.
Ilya Zlobin, world-renowned expert numismatist, enthusiast, author and dealer in authentic ancient Greek, ancient Roman, ancient Byzantine, world coins & more. Ilya Zlobin is an independent individual who has a passion for coin collecting, research and understanding the importance of the historical context and significance all coins and objects represent.
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